Innovations that change the game
Years of innovation
Global research centers
Nobel Prize Awards
For the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems.
Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith
Invention of the charge-coupled device (CCD), for electronic memory, which made the Charge Coupled Device (CCD) image sensor possible.
Horst St?rmer, Daniel Tsui, and Robert Laughlin
Discovery and explanation of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations (the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect.)
Development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. (Prize shared with Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips.)
Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson
Discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation that in turn provided clear substantiation of the "big bang" theory of how the universe began.
Philip W. Anderson
Fundamental theoretical insights into the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems". (Prize shared with Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John Hasbrouck van Vleck.)
John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain and William Shockley
Research on semiconductors that led to the invention of the transistor in 1947.
Clinton J. Davisson
Discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals and demonstrated the wave nature of matter. (Prize shared with George Paget Thomson.)
Claude Shannon Web Exhibit
Sift through over 100 archival documents, photographs, and publications that trace Shannon's career from 23 year-old Bell Labs intern to father of the digital age.Explore the Web Exhibit